Does selling a phone on an online marketplace make you a “trader” under the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive and the Consumer Rights Directive?

Online marketplaces provide sales channels not only for professional traders but also for individuals selling second-hand goods. For buyers, online advertisements do not always make it clear whether the seller is a professional trader or an individual. This distinction is important because consumers buying from a professional trader can benefit from EU consumer laws, while these protections do not apply … Read more

Who is a consumer? The dynamic approach to the concept of ‘consumer’ under the Brussels I Regulation

On 25 January 2018, the European Court of Justice (“ECJ”) rendered a preliminary ruling in a case between Austrian citizen Maximilian Schrems and online social network Facebook. The ruling is important for two reasons. First, the ECJ approved a dynamic approach to the concept of ‘consumer’ under the Brussels I Regulation. Secondly, the ECJ clarified that the special consumer forum … Read more

Bankruptcy trustee may be personally liable if claims encumbered by an undisclosed right of pledge (stil pandrecht) are collected against the will of the pledge holder

On 5 February 2016, the Dutch Supreme Court (“Supreme Court“) ruled (ECLI:NL:HR:2016:199) that an estate claim (boedelvordering) based on damage suffered by a pledge holder, caused by the wrongful collection of claims encumbered by a right of pledge by a bankruptcy trustee, does not have priority over the estate claim relating to the remuneration of the trustee. The Supreme Court … Read more